One of the ever-present conundrums in working with computers is that data that looks good and easily readable to a human, and data that is easy and efficient for a computer to process, are never the same.
In Powershell, you see this "immutable rule" manifest itself in that, despite all the various Format-* cmdlets available to you, some data will just never look good in the console. And if it looks good in the console, chances are you've mangled the objects so that they've become useless for further processing over the pipeline. This is essentially one of the Powershell "Gotcha's" espoused by Don Jones, a term that he refers to as "Format Right." The principal is that if you are going to format your Powershell output with a Format-* cmdlet, you should always do so at the end of the statement (e.g., on the right side.) The formatting should be the last thing you do in an expression, and you should never try to pass something that has been formatted over the pipeline.
CSV files, in my opinion, are a kind of happy medium, because they are somewhat easy for humans to read (especially if the human has an application like Microsoft Excel or some such,) and CSV files are also relatively easy for computers to read and process. Therefore, CSVs are a popular format for transporting data and feeding it to computers, while still being legible to humans.
When you use Export-Csv to write a bunch of objects out to a CSV file:
# Get Active Directory groups, their members, and memberships:
Get-ADGroup -Filter * -SearchBase 'CN=Users,DC=domain,DC=local' -Properties Members,MemberOf | `
Select Name, Members, MemberOf | `
Export-Csv -NoTypeInformation -Path C:\Users\ryan\Desktop\test.csv
And those objects contain arrays or lists as properties, you'll get something like this in your CSV file:
Uh... that is not useful at all. What's happened is that instead of outputting the contents of the Active Directory group members and memberOf attributes, which are collections/arrays, Powershell has instead output only the names of the .NET types of those collections.
What we need is a way to expand those lists so that they'll go nicely into a CSV file. So I usually do something like the script excerpt below. This is just one possible way of doing it; I by no means claim that it's the best way or the only way.
#Get all the AD groups:
$Groups = Get-ADGroup -Filter * -SearchBase 'OU=MyOU,DC=domain,DC=com' -Properties Members,MemberOf
#Create/initialize an empty collection that will contain a collection of objects:
$CSVReadyGroups = @()
#Iterate through each one of the groups:
Foreach ($Group In $Groups)
#Create a new object to hold our "CSV-Ready" version of the group:
$CSVReadyGroup = New-Object System.Object #Should probably be a PSObject
#Add some properties to the object.
$CSVReadyGroup | Add-Member -Type NoteProperty -Name 'Name' -Value $Group.Name
$CSVReadyGroup | Add-Member -Type NoteProperty -Name 'Members' -Value $Null
$CSVReadyGroup | Add-Member -Type NoteProperty -Name 'MemberOf' -Value $Null
# If the group has any members, then run the code inside these brackets:
# Poor-man's serialization.
# We are going to convert the array into a string, with NewLine characters
# separating each group member. Could also be more concise just to cast
# as [String] and do ($Group.Members -Join [Environment]::NewLine)
$MembersString = $Null
Foreach ($GroupMember In $Group.Members)
$MembersString += $GroupMember + [Environment]::NewLine
#Trim the one extra newline on the end:
$MembersString = $MembersString.TrimEnd([Environment]::NewLine)
#Add to our "CSV-Ready" group object:
$CSVReadyGroup.Members = $MembersString
# If the group is a member of any other groups,
# then do what we just did for the Members:
$MemberOfString = $Null
Foreach ($Membership In $Group.MemberOf)
$MemberOfString += $Membership + [Environment]::NewLine
$MemberOfString = $MemberOfString.TrimEnd([Environment]::NewLine)
$CSVReadyGroup.MemberOf = $MemberOfString
#Add the object we've created to the collection:
$CSVReadyGroups += $CSVReadyGroup
#Output our collection:
$CSVReadyGroups | Export-Csv -NoTypeInformation -Path C:\Users\ryan\Desktop\test.csv
Now you will have a CSV file that has readable arrays in it, that looks good when you open it with an application such as Excel.